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Suicide Prevention

 

Suicide_Prevention Document_Download. A document issued by the USMC (United States Marine Corps) on effective suicide prevention


If you suspect another of, or are yourself thinking of Suicide, please call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline toll free 24/7 at 1-800-273-8255. Or chat with a Suicide Prevention Specialist online at: https://suicidepreventionlifeline.org/chat/

PTSD

APA Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of PTSD:

https://www.apa.org/ptsd-guideline/ptsd.pdf

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Implicit Biases

We all have biases. Being biased isn’t inherently wrong. How we respond to those biases influences how we feel about ourselves and others. It can also impact how we treat others.

Do you know what your biases are? Harvard put together an implicit bias test. Take it. The more you know about yourself, the more you can be intentional with your behavior. 

Additionally, if you look at common reasons fire departments end up in litigation, biases and discrimination are often present. 

WARNING: You make not like your results and may need to process those reactions. That is common. Seek to understand what you become defensive about and why. 

Implicit Biases Test:

https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/takeatest.html

Reading Resources A-F

American Psychiatric Association, (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. 

Arble, E., & Arnetz, B. B. (2017). A Model of First-Responder Coping: An Approach/Avoidance.

Bifurcation. Stress & Health: Journal of The International Society For The Investigation Of Stress, 33(3), 223-232. doi:10.1002/smi.2692

Arbona, C., Fan, W., & Noor, N. (2016). Factor Structure and External Correlates of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among African American Firefighters. Psychology Research And Behavior Management, 9doi:10.2147/PRBM.S113615

Armstrong, D., Shakespeare-Finch, J., & Shochet, I. (2016). Organizational belongingness mediates the relationship between sources of stress and post trauma outcomes in firefighters. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, And Policy, 8(3), 343-347. doi:10.1037/tra0000083

Aspinwall, L. G., & Taylor, S. E. (1997). A Stitch in Time: Self-regulation and Proactive Coping. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 417–436.

Barrett, G. V., Polomsky, M. D., & McDaniel, M. A. (1999). Selection Tests for Firefighters: A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Business & Psychology, 13(4), 507-513.

Barnacle, R., & Abbott, D. (2009). Couple and Relationship Education Update The Development and Evaluation of a Gottsman-Based Premarital Education Program. Journal of Couple and Relationship Therapy, 8(64), 82nd ser.

Bryant, R. A., & Harvey, A. G. (1995). Post-Traumatic Stress in Volunteer Firefighters. Predictors of Distress. The Journal Of Nervous
And Mental Disease, 183(4), 267-271.

Chemtob, C. M. (2014). Early physical victimization is a risk factor for post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among Mississippi police and firefighter first responders to Hurricane Katrina. Psychological
Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, And Policy, 6(1), 92-96.
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Cowlishaw, S., Evans, L., & McLennan, J. (2010). Work-Family Conflict and Crossover in Volunteer Emergency Service Workers. Work & Stress, 24(4), 342-358. doi:10.1080/02678373.2010.532947

Cowlishaw, S., Birch, A., McLennan, J., & Hayes, P. (2014). Antecedents and Outcomes of Volunteer Work–Family Conflict and Facilitation in Australia. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 63(1), 168-189. doi:10.1111/apps.12000

Craig, J. M., & Jacobs, R. R. (1985). The Effect of Working With Women on Male Attitudes Toward Female Firefighters. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 6(1), 61-74.

De Wolde, A., Groenendaal, J., Helsloot, I., & Schmidt, A. (2014). An Explorative Study on the Connection Between Ethical Leadership, Prototypicality, and Organizational Misbehavior in a Dutch Fire Service. International Journal Of Leadership Studies, 8(2), 18-43.

Duarte, C. S., Hoven, C. W., Wu, P., Bin, F., & Cotel, S. (2006). Post-Traumatic Stress in Children With First Responders in Their Families. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(2). Retrieved May 23, 2017

Dunlop, P. D., Morrison, D. L., & Cordery, J. L. (2011). Investigating Retesting Effects in a Personnel Selection Context. International Journal of Selection & Assessment, 19(2), 217-221. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2389.2011.00549.x

Eriksen, C. (2014). Gendered Risk Engagement: Challenging the Embedded Vulnerability, Social Norms and Power Relations in Conventional Australian Bushfire Education. Geographical Research, 52(1), 23-33.
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Employment standards for Australian urban firefighters: Part 4: Physical aptitude tests and standards. Journal Of Occupational And
Environmental Medicine, 57(10), 1092-1097.
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Examining physical and sexual abuse histories as correlates of suicide risk among firefighters. Journal Of Traumatic Stress,
doi:10.1002/jts.22230

Farnsworth, J. K., & Sewell, K. W. (2011). Fear of emotion as a
moderator between PTSD and firefighter social interactions. Journal Of Traumatic Stress, 24(4), 444-450. doi:10.1002/jts.20657

Fullagar, H. K., Sampson, J. A., Mott, B. J., Burdon, C. A., Taylor, N. S., & Groeller, H. (2015).

Reading Resource G-F

Gulliver, S. B., Cammarata, C. M., Leto, F., Ostiguy, W. J., Flynn, E. J., Carpenter, G. J., & … Kimbrel, N. A. (2016). Project Reach Out: A training program to increase behavioral health utilization among professional firefighters. International Journal Of Stress Management, 23(1),
65-83. doi:10.1037/a0039731

Gramlich, M. A., & Neer, S. M. (2018). Firefighter-Paramedic With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Horrific Images, and Depression: A Clinical Case Study. Clinical Case Studies, 17(3), 150-165.

Gulliver, S. B., Pennington, M. L., Leto, F., Cammarata, C., Ostiguy, W., Zavodny, C., & … Kimbrel, N. A. (2016). In the wake of suicide: Developing guidelines for suicide prevention in fire service. Death Studies, 40(2),
121-128. doi:10.1080/07481187.2015.1077357

Haddock, C., Jahnke, S., Carlos Poston, W., & Jitnarin, N. (2016). Marriage and Divorce Among Firefighters in the United States. Journal
of Family Issues, 37(16), 2294-2308.

Haddock, C. K., Poston, W. S., Jahnke, S. A., & Jitnarin, N. (2017). Alcohol Use and Problem Drinking among Women Firefighters. Women’s Health Issues, 27(6), 632-638. doi:10.1016/j.whi.2017.07.003

Henderson, S. N., Van Hasselt, V. B., LeDuc, T. J., & Couwels, J. (2016). Firefighter suicide: Understanding cultural challenges for mental health professionals.

Hom, M. A., Matheny, N. L., Stanley, I. H., Rogers, M. L., Cougle, J. R., & Joiner, T. E. (2017).

Hom, M. A., Stanley, I. H., Spencer-Thomas, S., & Joiner, T. E. (2017). Women Firefighters and Workplace Harassment: Associated Suicidality and Mental Health.

In-Sung, C., Mi-Young, L., Sung-Won, J., & Chang-Wook, N. (2015). Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory as related factor for post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms according to job stress level in experienced firefighters: 5-year study. Annals of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 27(1), 1-6. doi:10.1186/s40557-015-0067

Jahnke, S. A., Poston, W. C., Haddock, C. K., Jitnarin, N., Hyder, M. L., & Horvath, C. (2012). The health of women in the US fire service. BMC Women’s Health, 12(1),
39-50. doi:10.1186/1472-6874-12-39

Jo, I., Lee, S., Sung, G., Kim, M., Lee, S., Park, J., & Lee, K. (2018). Relationship between burnout and PTSD symptoms in firefighters: the moderating effects of a sense of calling to firefighting. International Archives of Occupational & Environmental Health, 91(1), 117-123. doi:10.1007/s00420-017-1263-6

Johnson, E. E. (1983). Psychological tests used in assessing a sample
of police and fire fighter candidates. Journal Of Police Science & Administration, 11(4), 430-433.

Karasek, R. A., & Theorell, T. 1990. Healthy work. New York: Basic Books.

Kaurin, A., Schönfelder, S., & Wessa, M. (2018). Self-Compassion Buffers the Link Between Self-Criticism and Depression in Trauma-Exposed Firefighters. Journal Of Counseling Psychology, 65(4),
453-462. doi:10.1037/cou0000275

Klee, S., & Renner, K. (2013). In search of the ‘Rescue Personality’. A questionnaire study with emergency medical services personnel. Personality And Individual Differences, 54(5), 669-672.
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Kim, J. E., Dager, S. R., Jeong, H. S., Ma, J., Park, S., Kim, J., &… Lyoo, I. K. (2018). Firefighters, post-traumatic stress disorder, and barriers to treatment: Results from a nationwide total population survey. Plos ONE, 13(1), 1-14. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0190630

Kimbrel, N. A., Pennington, M. L., Cammarata, C. M., Leto, F., Ostiguy, W. J., & Gulliver, S. B. (2016). Is Cumulative Exposure to Suicide Attempts and Deaths a Risk Factor for Suicidal Behavior Among
Firefighters? A Preliminary Study. Suicide & Life-Threatening
Behavior, 46(6), 669-677. doi:10.1111/sltb.12248

Komarovskaya, I., Brown, A. D., Galatzer-Levy, I. R., Madan, A., Henn-Haase, C., Teater, J., & Lee, J. H., Lee, D., Kim, J., Jeon, K., & Sim, M. (2017). Duty‐related trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress symptoms in professional firefighters. Journal Of Traumatic Stress, 30(2), 133-141.
doi:10.1002/jts.22180

Lesbian Firefighters: Shifting the Boundaries Between “Masculinity” and “Femininity”. (2008). Journal of Lesbian Studies, 12(1), 103-114.

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. 1984. Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.

Liao, H., Arvey, R. D., Butler, R. J., & Nutting, S. M. (2001). Correlates of work injury frequency and duration among firefighters. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6(3), 229-242.
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Maleta, Y. (2009). Playing with fire Gender at work and the Australian female cultural experience within rural fire fighting. Journal Of Sociology, 45(3), 291-306.

Matsumoto, D. R., & Juang, L. P. (2017). Culture and Psychology. Boston. MA: Cengage Learning.

Mayer, R. C., & Gavin, M. B. 2005. Trust in management 1014 Academy of Management Journal October and performance: Who minds the shop while the employees watch the boss? Academy of Management Journal, 48: 874 –
888.

Milligan‐Saville, J. S., Paterson, H. M., Harkness, E. L., Marsh, A. M., Dobson, M., Kemp, R. I., & Harvey, S. B. (2017). The amplification of common somatic symptoms by posttraumatic stress disorder in firefighters. Journal Of Traumatic Stress, 30(2), 142-148.
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Moran, L., & Roth, G. (2013). Humor in context: Fire service and joking culture. New Horizons In Adult Education & Human Resource Development, 25(3), 14-26. doi:10.1002/nha3.20028

Muffler, S. C., Cavico, F. J., & Mujtaba, B. G. (2010). Diversity, Disparate Impact, and Ethics in Business: Implications of the New Haven Firefighters’ Case and the Supreme Court’s Ricci v. DeStefano Decision. SAM Advanced Management Journal (07497075), 75(3), 11-20.

Na, K., Kim, E., & Park, J. (2017). Decreased plasma adiponectin among male firefighters with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal Of Affective Disorders, 221254-258.
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Olmsted, D. W., & Monachesi, E. D. (1956). A Validity Check on MMPI Scales of Responsibility and Dominance. Journal Of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 53140-141.

Olofsson, J. (2013). “The Profession of Firefighting Is About Teamwork, It Is About Trusting Each Other”: Masculine Enactments and Generational Discrepancies Within the Swedish Fire Service. Culture, Society and Masculinities, 5(1), 75-88. doi:10.3149/csm.0501.75

O’Neill, O.A., & Rothbard, N.P. (2017). Is Love All You Need? The Effects of Emotional Culture, Suppression, and Work-Family Conflict on Firefighter Risk-Taking and Health. Academy of Management Journal,
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Onyedire, N. G., Ekoh, A. T., Chukwuorji, J. C., & Ifeagwazi, C. M. (2017). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among firefighters: Roles of resilience and locus of control. Journal Of Workplace Behavioral Health, 32(4), 227-248.
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Pinto, R. J., Henriques, S. P., Jongenelen, I., Carvalho, C., & Maia, Â. C. (2015). The strongest correlates of PTSD for firefighters: Number, recency, frequency, or perceived threat of traumatic events. Journal Of Traumatic Stress, 28(5), 434-440. doi:10.1002/jts.22035

Poston, W. C., Haddock, C. K., Jahnke, S. A., Jitnarin, N., Day, R. S., & Daniels, I. D. (2014). Health Disparities Among Racial and Ethnic Minority Firefighters. Journal Of Health Disparities Research & Practice, 7(5), 105-129.

Psarros, C., Theleritis, C., Kokras, N., Lyrakos, D., Koborozos, A., Kakabakou, O., & Bergiannaki, J. D. (2018). Personality characteristics and individual factors associated with PTSD in firefighters one month after extended wildfires. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 72(1), 17-23. doi:10.1080/08039488.2017.1368703

Reading Resources Q-Z

Riccucci, N. M., & Riccardelli, M. (2015). The Use of Written Exams in Police and Fire Departments: Implications for Social Diversity. Review
Of Public Personnel Administration, 35(4), 352-366.
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Sequelae. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 205(12), 910-917.
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Salters-Pedneault, K., Ruef, A. M., & Orr, S. P. (2010). Personality and psychophysiological profiles of police officer and firefighter recruits. Personality & Individual Differences, 49(3), 210-215.
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Sanford, K., Kruse, M. I., Proctor, A., Torres, V. A., Pennington, M. L., Synett, S. J., & Gulliver,

S. B. (2017). Couple resilience and life wellbeing in firefighters. Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(6), 660-666.
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Sattler, D. N., Boyd, B., & Kirsch, J. (2014). Trauma-exposed Firefighters: Relationships among Post-Traumatic Growth, Post-Traumatic Stress, Resource Availability, Coping and Critical Incident.

Sawhney, Gargi, Kristen S. Jennings, Thomas W. Britt, and Michael T. Sliter. 2017. “Occupational Stress and Mental Health Symptoms:Examining the Moderating Effect of Work Recovery Strategies in Firefighters.” Journal Of Occupational Health Psychology Psyc ARTICLES, EBSCOhost (accessed January 20, 2018).

Stress Debriefing Experience. Stress & Health: Journal Of The International Society For The Investigation Of Stress, 30(5), 356-365.
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Scarborough, R. C. (2017). Risk a Lot to Save a Lot: How Firefighters Decide Whose Life Matters. Sociological Forum, 321073-1092.
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Shreffler, K. M., Meadows, M. P., & Davis, K. D. (2011). Firefighting and Fathering: Work- Family Conflict, Parenting Stress, and Satisfaction with Parenting and Child Behavior. Fathering: A Journal of Theory, Research, and Practice about Men as Fathers, 9(2), 169-188.
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Sommerfeld, A., Wagner, S. L., Harder, H. G., & Schmidt, G. (2017). Behavioral Health and Firefighters: An Intervention and Interviews
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Stinchcomb, J. B., & Ordaz, F. (2007). The Integration of Two “Brotherhoods” into One Organizational Culture: A Psycho-social Perspective on Merging Police and Fire Services. Public Organization Review, 7(2), 143-161. doi:10.1007/s11115-006-0026-8

Stanley, I. H., Hom, M. A., Spencer-Thomas, S., & Joiner, T. E. (2017). Examining anxiety sensitivity as a mediator of the association between PTSD symptoms and suicide risk among women firefighters.
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Stanley, I. H., Hom, M. A., Spencer-Thomas, S., & Joiner, T. E. (2017). Suicidal thoughts and behaviors among women firefighters: An examination of associated features and comparison of pre-career and
career prevalence rates. Journal Of Affective Disorders, 221107-114.
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Tomaka, J., Magoc, D., Morales‐Monks, S. M., & Reyes, A. C. (2017). Post-Traumatic stress symptoms and alcohol‐related outcomes among municipal firefighters. Journal Of Traumatic Stress,
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Vaulerin, J., Colson, S. S., Emile, M., Scoffier-Mériaux, S., & d’Arripe-Longueville, F. (2016). The Big Five Personality Traits and French Firefighter Burnout: The Mediating Role of Achievement Goals. Journal Of Occupational And Environmental Medicine, 58(4), e128-e132.
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Wagner, S. L., & Martin, C. A. (2012). Can Firefighters’ Mental Health Be Predicted by Emotional Intelligence and Proactive Coping?. Journal Of Loss & Trauma, 17(1), 56-72. doi:10.1080/15325024.2011.584027

Wagner, S. L., Martin, C. A., & McFee, J. A. (2009). Investigating the ‘rescue personality’. Traumatology, 15(3), 5-12.
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Wagner, S. L., McFee, J. A., & Martin, C. A. (2010). Mental health implications of fire service membership. Traumatology, 16(2), 26-32.
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Wolde, A., Groenendaal, J., Helsloot, I., & Schmidt, A. (2014). An Explorative Study on the Connection Between Ethical Leadership, Prototypicality, and Organizational Misbehavior in a Dutch Fire
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Young, P. M., Partington, S., Wetherell, M. A., St Clair Gibson, A., & Partington, E. (2014). Stressors and coping strategies of UK firefighters during on‐duty incidents. Stress And Health: Journal Of
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